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North Carolina Veterinary Medical board Protects "Veterinary Technician" Title

     "The North Carolina Veterinary Practice Act defines the term "Veterinary Technician" as the following:

90-181. Definitions.

(11)    "Veterinary technician" means either of the following persons:

               a. A person who has successfully completed a post-high school course in the care and treatment

                  of animals that conform to the standards required for accreditation by the American

                   Veterinary Medical Association and who is registered with the Board as a veterinary technician

               b. A person who holds a degree in veterinary medicine from a college of veterinary medicine

                   recognized by the Board for licensure of veterinarians and who is registered with the Board as a

                   veterinary technician The North Carolina Veterinary Medical Board (NCVMB) believes that

                   Registered Veterinary Technicians (RVTs) play an important role in the profession and provide

                   enhanced patient care for the public and their pets. Unfortunately, many Veterinary practices are

                   referring to veterinary assistants and other staff members as Veterinary Technicians or

                   Technicians. This action creates confusion and misrepresentation to the public.

      The NCVMB acknowledges that there are individuals without veterinary technician credentials who are highly competent and provide essential services to the profession. However, a Registered Veterinary Technician has a title (that is associated with specific credentials) that is granted and protected by law under the North Carolina Veterinary Practice Act. 

     It is essential for each practice to educate their staff on the proper use of titles and the regulations of the North Carolina Veterinary Practice Act. Practices that improperly refer to non-registered individuals as Registered Veterinary Technicians or Veterinary Technicians will be cited upon inspection by the NCVMB and face the possibility of discipline." 

* REFERENCE- The above is a full quote from the "NCVMB Regulatory Bulletin June 2020 (Volume 4 Issue 2)

Membership Renewal










With your membership you will receive:


  • A discount to both our fall and spring conferences

  • A NAVTA membership discount

  • Newsletters pertaining to NCAVT and updates in the Veterinary Technology world

  • Free access to the NCAVT Career Center

  • Free Virtual CE Classes


In addition, your membership allows us to:


  • Maintain this networking website

  • Provide affordable continuing education

  • Award scholarships to deserving future RVT's attending North Carolina AVMA accredited  schools

  • Help donate to 501(c)(3) organizations in the state that many of you hold close to your heart


Continuing Education

Since the NCVMB will be accepting online CE for 2020. We are committed to helping all the RVTs in our state that need to fulfill their requirements. We will be hosting monthly webinars that will provide you credits.


      Thank you to all those who have given their time and effort to teach these wonderful and informative classes. If you happen to miss this last webinar, you will not want to miss the next. Watch your email boxes for your chance to sign up. More webinars will be announced as we can make them available. Just keep an eye out for them via email and through our social media outlets.

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School News

BEcoming a Veterinary Technician

     In order to become a Veterinary Technician in North Carolina, one must obtain a Degree or Diploma in Veterinary Technology from an AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) approved school.   Here in North Carolina, we have six excellent schools to pick from, which are listed below for your convenience. After successfully graduating from the program, one must pass the Veterinary Technician National Exam and then the North Carolina Veterinary Medical Board exam.  Your licenses will be issued and require renewal every two years, along with 12 hours of continue education classes over that two year period. Two hours of these classes must be on the subject of opioids.  Good Luck on your ventures to becoming a Registered Veterinary Technician!

AVMA Accredited NC Schools for Veterinary Technology

Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College
Veterinary Medical Technology Program
340 Victoria Road
Asheville, NC 28801
828-254-1921 ext. 273
Paige Jimeson, RVT Interim Director
Associate of Applied Science

Cape Fear Community College
Veterinary Medical Technology Program
4500 Blue Clay Road
Castle Hayne, NC 28429
Clifton Simmons, DVM Interim Director
Associate Degree in Veterinary Medical Technology

Central Carolina Community College
Veterinary Medical Technology Program
1105 Kelly Dr.
Sanford, NC 27330
Kim Browning, DVM Director
Associate of Applied Science

Gaston College
Veterinary Medical Technology Program
201 Hwy. 321 South
Dallas, NC 28034-1499
Melanie Skinner, RVT Director
Associate of Applied Science

Miller-Motte College
3901 Capital Blvd, Suite 151
Raleigh, NC 27604
Cherrokie Taylor, RVT Interim Program Director

Nash Community College
Veterinary Medical Technology Program
511 N. Carriage Road
Rocky Mount, NC 27804
Gail Harrell, RVT Director
Associate in Applied Science

References- List of school and information associated with them are from the AVMA website. (

Does your school have updates or information you want to see in the newsletter? Email us at

Equine Obesity

A Growing Problem

     Equine obesity is an increasingly common problem associated with severe consequences. Research is developing quickly and data collected by Equine Veterinary Journal (EVJ) shows that work relating to equine obesity is widely read and cited, highlighting clinical and research interest in this area. This virtual issue brings together selected articles published recently in EVJ that have made important contributions to our understanding of this important welfare concern.

     Obesity in equids is considered to involve one or more of generalized or localized excessive adipose tissue and a predisposition to weight gain or resistance to weight loss; common criteria to define obesity has often been a body condition score (BCS) ≥7/9 to correspond with a total body fat percentage of around ≥20%. While obesity is common in equids but the prevalence varies in different populations. The results of a large owner questionnaire survey included in this virtual issue indicated that 31% of horses/ponies were obese based on owner assessment with a higher prevalence of obesity amongst native breeds and those used for pleasure riding or that were left unridden. Owners' recognition of obesity may however be limited, potentially underestimating the true prevalence.

     A range of clinical conditions may be associated with equine obesity but the most serious and best studied is the increased risk of endocrinopathic laminitis associated with insulin dysregulation (ID). Insulin dysregulation comprises hyperinsulinemia (basal or in response to carbohydrate challenge) and/or tissue insulin insensitivity and is identified relatively frequently with obesity. 

       Whilst the mechanical effects of excessive weight are undoubtedly unhelpful to the hoof in the presence of trigger factors for laminitis it is the direct effect of insulin on the laminae that appears fundamental to the pathogenesis of endocrinopathic laminitis. The pathogenesis of laminitis remains elusive. Rather than a ‘unifying theory’ by which diverse predisposing factors converge on a common pathway, there are considered to be different ‘forms’ of laminitis with different pathogeneses: endocrinopathic, mechanical, and inflammatory. The study by Burns identified the important differences between inflammatory laminitis that may be induced with massive carbohydrate overload and the more prolonged moderate carbohydrate exposure of pasture‐associated laminitis and supports the hypothesis that pasture‐associated laminitis is endocrinopathic rather than inflammatory.

     The question is pertinent in equids and particularly ponies in which weight gain during the summer is a normal and necessary adaptation to seasonal changes in nutrition and climate. The question is complex, how they can be assessed, and potential breed, seasonal, and age effects. Several publications indicate that obesity alone is not always associated with metabolic dysfunction nor laminitis. Counter‐intuitively with some previous studies, obesity was not associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and tissue insulin sensitivity increased in horses that received the high-glycemic meal. An association between high-glycemic diets and increased insulin sensitivity was also reported by other studies that are included in the current virtual issue. 

     The relevance to the development of laminitis of insulin dysregulation and dysfunctional fat rather than obesity per se was illustrated in a cohort study of ponies in Southern England. Metabolic and morphometric features of ponies were recorded and the ponies were followed for the development of laminitis over the following three years. There were no significant differences in indicators of adiposity such as BCS and crest thickness between ponies that did and did not develop laminitis, indeed median BCS was notably high (8/9) in ponies that remained free of laminitis for three years. However, metabolic markers associated with dysfunctional adipose tissue: basal insulin, insulin post dexamethasone, and total adiponectin were significant factors in a multivariable model to predict the development of clinical laminitis.

     Diagnostic testing for insulin dysregulation is an important challenge for practitioners. When undertaking such tests, consideration of the specific question each test is addressing, and the clinical value of the results are important.

     Insulin and glucose dynamics can be broken down into several distinct but related components with a plethora of available diagnostic tests. From a practical perspective, the two components of insulin dysregulation are hyperinsulinemia and tissue insulin resistance.  Whilst these biological features are related, their relationship may vary depending on factors including insulin clearance, gastric emptying, incretin hormones, and β‐cell function.

     Intravenous tests have been considered the ‘gold standard’ for assessment of both pancreatic response and tissue insulin sensitivity. This virtual issue includes an assessment of the repeatability of the hyperglycaemic clamp that will be of interest to researchers. However, from a clinical perspective, it is the interaction of the individual and its diet that appears crucial in pasture‐associated laminitis and particularly of hyperinsulinemia. Diagnostic tests that focus on this are the most practical and clinically applicable.

     The most straightforward diagnostic test is the assessment of basal hyperinsulinemia. Fasting in preparation for this test is no longer recommended, although high carbohydrate hard feed should be withheld. Whilst the measurement of basal insulin concentration is insensitive for the detection of insulin dysregulation it appeared relatively sensitive for the prediction of laminitis in ponies within the following year (78%) and recurrence of laminitis in a grazing season (100%). However, it should be noted that both of these studies used an insulin assay that is now discontinued and assay choice may affect results.

     The oral sugar test is growing in popularity and assesses the horse's response to an oral carbohydrate challenge to mimic the ingestion of high nonstructural carbohydrate pasture. Two studies that report on this test are included in this virtual issue. The oral sugar test had limited repeatability and further analysis of the data indicated that repeatability was lower in insulin dysregulated ponies. The clinical importance of these observations is that in clinical practice, small changes in insulin values should be interpreted with caution.

      Insulin concentration is a continuous variable but clinicians are tempted to seek specific diagnostic thresholds to divide the equine population into dichotomous groups. Under the experimental conditions of a dietary model of endocrinopathic laminitis, the risk of laminitis increased over a range of insulin concentrations following a glucose challenge rather than around a single specific threshold. Insulin dynamics may be influenced by a wide range of factors and recent research included in this virtual issue has focused on the effects of age, breed, and diet. Increased insulin secretory responses to glucose in aged horses may be a particularly important finding when considering the association between pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and laminitis.

     PPID has often been considered a risk factor for laminitis. In an informative study included in this virtual issue, Karikoski measured basal insulin concentrations and examined hoof lamellar histology in cases of PPID with and without clinical evidence of laminitis. The authors hypothesized that PPID would be associated with subclinical lamellar changes even in horses that had not shown clinical signs of laminitis. Histology of PPID cases without basal hyperinsulinemia and with no history of laminitis was normal whereas all cases of PPID with laminitis had basal hyperinsulinemia. The authors concluded that PPID alone may not cause laminitis but that hyperinsulinemia was the key factor. This conclusion is supported by other clinical studies; in one population study of PPID cases, only 13% had a known history of laminitis. In another case series, 32/36 (89%) of laminitis cases were considered endocrinopathic of which 11 had PPID but only one laminitis case had PPID without basal hyperinsulinemia. Any causal relationship between PPID and hyperinsulinemia is currently unclear and requires further research.

      Another area of this current discussion is nature or nurture? Veterinary surgeons may sometimes assume that the owner's management (nurture) alone causes obesity and is the primary driver of ID and associated metabolic traits. However, in a thought‐provoking study, Norton demonstrated high levels of heritability for many metabolic traits associated with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Basal insulin in Welsh ponies – a significant predictor of clinical laminitis had a particularly high heritability (h2SNP = 0.8). The importance of genetics has also been indicated in other studies including the heritability of laminitis in a pony herd. Differences in breed susceptibility to EMS are also well-described. These heritability data do not mean that diet and management are unimportant, on the contrary in high-risk individuals management is likely to be crucial. While it is too simplistic to assume EMS could be ‘bred out’, genetic testing could potentially identify individuals at risk of EMS and better inform some breeding decisions.

     The chronicity of the underlying disease in endocrinopathic laminitis is an important factor that may affect management, recurrence, and outcome. In all cases of owner recognized laminitis, it was confirmed by a veterinary surgeon however, the work showed that owners were less skilled in this area – recognizing just 55% of cases. The chronicity of the underlying disease and limited involvement of veterinary surgeons also places an emphasis on the role of the farrier in providing long‐term regular care, also explored in this virtual issue. The research highlighted the unique opportunity afforded to farriers in laminitis prevention and contrasted the holistic approach taken by some farriers with a more task‐based approach of others in which that opportunity could be lost.

      In summary, this collection of papers illustrates that equine obesity is a common and complex problem. From a pathological perspective it is important to look beyond obesity as simply an excess of fat but instead to consider the associated metabolic changes. From a practical perspective, the need for long‐term care is crucial, in part due to genetic predispositions. Many questions remain nor least the elusive pathogenesis of endocrinopathic laminitis and the most effective laminitis treatment, management, and prevention strategies.

Story Source:

Materials provided by the British Equine Veterinary Association.  Note: Content edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. "Clinical insights: Equine obesity" (04 August 2020) by Edward J. Knowles & Lucy Grieve. Retrieved from



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executive board

Are you interested in joining the NCAVT Executive Board? We are currently accepting resumes and nominations for our NAVTA  Representative position! 

If you are a Registered Veterinary Technician in North Carolina interested
in making a difference in your community, representing our profession, and encouraging career development, the NCAVT Executive Board is perfect for you! To become a board member, you must be an active member of NCAVT. Note - for this specific position, you must also be an active member of NAVTA. 

So, what does the NAVTA Representative do?

  • Serves a two-year term position with NCAVT

  • Responsible for being aware of the national trends in the Veterinary Technician and Veterinary Assistant fields

  • Acts as a liaison between NCAVT and NAVTA when needed and submit short articles regarding NCAVT activities and conferences for publication in the NAVTA journal

  • Attends the NAVTA Leadership Conferences and represents the NCAVT

  • Works closely with the Public Relations Officer to help promote National Veterinary Technician Week 

Happy Vet Tech Week

October 11-17, 2020

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Thank You for all you do every day!!

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